TABLE I

Uniformitarian Estimates-Age of the Earth

(Unless otherwise indicated, based on standard assumptions of (1) zero initial "daughter" component;

(2) closed system; (3) uniform rate)

Process Indicated Age of Earth Reference
1. Decay of earth's magnetic field 10,000 years 21
2. Influx of radiocarbon to the earth system 10,000 years 22
3. Influx of meteoritic dust from space too small to calculate 23
4. Efflux of Helium-4 into the atmosphere 1,750~175,000 years 24
5. Development of total human population 4,000 years 25
6. Influx of uranium to the ocean via rivers 10,000-100,000 years 24
7. Influx of sediment to the ocean via rivers 30,000,000years 26
8 Erosion of sediment from continents 14,000,000 years 26
9 Leaching of sodium from continents 32,000,000 years 27
10. Leaching of chlorine from continents 1,000,000 years 27
11. Leaching of calcium from continents 12,000,000years 27
12. Influx of carbonate to the ocean 100,000 years 27
13. Influx of sulphate to the ocean 10,000,000 years 27
14. Influx of chlorine to the ocean 164,000,000 years 27
15. Influx of calcium to the ocean 1,000,000 years 27
16. Efflux of oil from traps by fluid pressure 10,000-100,000 years 28
17. Formation of radiogenic lead by neutron capture too small to measure 28
18. Formation of radiogenic strontium by neutron capture too small to measure 28
19. Decay of natural remanent paleomagnetism 100,000 years 28
20. Decay of C-14 in pre-Cambrian wood 4,000 years 28
21. Decay of uranium with initial lead too small to measure 29
22. Decay of potassium with entrapped argon too small to measure 29
23. Influx of juvenile water to oceans 340,000,000 years 30
24. Influx of magma from mantle to form crust 500,000,000 years 30
25. Growth of active coral reefs 10,000 years 30
26. Growth of oldest living part of biosphere 5,000 years 30
27. Origin of human civilizations 5,000 years 30
28. Formation of river deltas 5,000 years 31
29. Submarine oil seepage into oceans 50,000,000 years 32
30. Decay of natural plutonium 80,000,000 years 33
31. Decay of lines of galaxies 10,000,000 years 34
32. Expanding interstellar gas 60,000,000 years 35
33. Formation of Carbon-14 on meteorites 100,000 years 36
34. Decay of short-period comets 10,000 years 37
35. Decay of long-period comets 1,000,000 years 38
36. Influx of small particles to the sun 83,000 years 38
37. Maximum life of meteor showers 5,000,000 years 38
38. Accumulation of dust on the moon 200,000 years 38
39. Instability of rings of Saturn 1,000,000 years 38
40. Escape of methane from Titan 20,000,000 years 38
41. Deceleration of earth by tidal friction 500,000,000 years 39
42. Cooling of earth by heat efflux 24,000,000 years 39
43. Accumulation of calcareous ooze on sea floor 5,000,000 years 40
44. Influx of sodium to the ocean via rivers 260,000,000 years 41
45. Influx of nickel to the ocean via rivers 9,000 years 41
46. Influx of magnesium to the ocean via rivers 45,000,000 years 41
47. Influx of silicon to the ocean via rivers 8,000 years 41
48. Influx of potassium to the ocean via rivers 11,000,000 years 41
49. Influx of copper to the ocean via rivers 50,000 years 41
50. Influx of gold to the ocean via rivers 560,000 years 41
51. Influx of silver to the ocean via rivers 2,100,000 years 41
52. Influx of mercury to the ocean via rivers 42,000 years 41
53. Influx of lead to the ocean via rivers 2,000 years 41
54. Influx of tin to the ocean via rivers 100,000 years 41
55. Influx of aluminum to the ocean via rivers 100 years 41
56. Influx of lithium into ocean via rivers 20,000,000 years 41
57. Influx of titanium into ocean via rivers 160 years 41
58. Influx of chromium into ocean via rivers 350 years 41
59. Influx of manganese into ocean via rivers 1,400 years 41
60. Influx of iron into ocean via rivers 140 years 41
61. Influx of cobalt into ocean via rivers 18,000 years 41
62. Influx of zinc into ocean via rivers 180,000 years 41
63. Influx of rubidium into ocean via rivers 270,000 years 41
64. Influx of strontium into ocean via rivers 19,000,000 years 41
65. Influx of bismuth into ocean via rivers 45,000 years 41
66. Influx of thorium into ocean via rivers 350 years 41
67. Influx of antimony into ocean via rivers 350,000 years 41
68. Influx of tungsten into ocean via rivers 1,000 years 41
69. Influx of barium into ocean via rivers 84,000 years 41
70. Influx of molybdenum into ocean via rivers 500,000 years 41

References:

21. Thomas G. Barnes, Origin and Destiny of the Earth's Magnetic Field (San Diego, Institute for Creation

Research, 1973), p.25.

22. Melvin A. Cook, "Do Radiological Clocks Need Repair?", Creation Research Society Quarterly,,Vol. 5,

October 1968, p.70.

23. Henry M. Morris (Ed.), Scientific Creationism for Public Schools (San Diego, Institute for Creation

Research, 1974), pp.151-153.

24. Melvin A. Cook, "Where is the Earth's Radiogenic Helium?", Nature, Vol. 179, January 26,1957, p.213.

25. Henry M. Morris, The Troubled Waters of Evolution (San Diego, Creation Life Publishers, 1974), pp. 145154.

26. Stuart E. Nevins, "Evolution: The Ocean Says No." Impact Series, ICR Acts and Facts, Vol.2, No.8, October

1973.

27. Dudley J. Whitney, The Face of the Deep (New York, Vantage Press, 1955).

28. Melvin A. Cook, Prehistory and Earth Models (London, Max Parrish, 1966).

29. Harold S. Slusher, Critique of Radiometric Dating (San Diego, Institute for Creation Research, 1973).

30. John C. Whitcomb, Jr., and Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood Philadelphia Presbyterian and

Reformed Publishing Company, 1961).

31. Benjamin F. Allen, "The Geologic Age of the Mississippi River," Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol.9

(September 1972), pp.96-114.

32. R. D. Wilson et al., "Natural Marine Oil Seepage," Science (Vol.184), May 24,1974, pp.857-865.

33. "Natural Plutonium," Chemical and Engineering News, September 20, 1971.

34. Halton Arp. "Observational Paradoxes in Extragalactic Astronomy," Science, Vol. 174 (December 17,

1971), pp.1189-1200.

35. V. A. Hughes and D. Routledge, "An Expanding Ring of Interstellar Gas with Center Close to the Sun,"

Astronomical Journal, Vol.77, No.3 (1972), pp. 21O~214.

36. R. S. Boekl, "Search for Carbon 14 in Tektites," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.77, No.2 (1972), pp.

367-368.

37. Harold S. Slusher, "Some Astronomical Evidences for a Youthful Solar System," Creation Research

Society Quarterly, Vol. 8 (June 1971), pp.55-57.

38. Harold S. Slusher, Age of the Earth from Some Astronomical Indicators, Unpublished manuscript.

39. Thomas G. Barnes, "Physics, A Challenge to Geologic Time," Impact Series 16, ICR Acts and Facts,

Institute for Creation Research, July 1974.

40. Maurice Ewing, J. I. Ewing and M. Talwan, "Sediment Distribution in the Oceans - Mid-Atlantic Ridge,"

Bulletin of the Geophysical Society of America, Vol. 75 (January 1964), pp.17-36.

41. Chemical Oceanography, Ed. by J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow (New York, Academic Press, Vol.1, 1965), p. 1&4.

See also Harold Camping, "Let the Oceans Speak," Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 11, (June

1974), pp. 39A5.