Uniformitarian Estimates-Age of the Earth
(Unless otherwise indicated, based on standard assumptions of (1) zero initial "daughter" component;
(2) closed system; (3) uniform rate)
|Process||Indicated Age of Earth||Reference|
|1.||Decay of earth's magnetic field||10,000 years||21|
|2.||Influx of radiocarbon to the earth system||10,000 years||22|
|3.||Influx of meteoritic dust from space||too small to calculate||23|
|4.||Efflux of Helium-4 into the atmosphere||1,750~175,000 years||24|
|5.||Development of total human population||4,000 years||25|
|6.||Influx of uranium to the ocean via rivers||10,000-100,000 years||24|
|7.||Influx of sediment to the ocean via rivers||30,000,000years||26|
|8||Erosion of sediment from continents||14,000,000 years||26|
|9||Leaching of sodium from continents||32,000,000 years||27|
|10.||Leaching of chlorine from continents||1,000,000 years||27|
|11.||Leaching of calcium from continents||12,000,000years||27|
|12.||Influx of carbonate to the ocean||100,000 years||27|
|13.||Influx of sulphate to the ocean||10,000,000 years||27|
|14.||Influx of chlorine to the ocean||164,000,000 years||27|
|15.||Influx of calcium to the ocean||1,000,000 years||27|
|16.||Efflux of oil from traps by fluid pressure||10,000-100,000 years||28|
|17.||Formation of radiogenic lead by neutron capture||too small to measure||28|
|18.||Formation of radiogenic strontium by neutron capture||too small to measure||28|
|19.||Decay of natural remanent paleomagnetism||100,000 years||28|
|20.||Decay of C-14 in pre-Cambrian wood||4,000 years||28|
|21.||Decay of uranium with initial lead||too small to measure||29|
|22.||Decay of potassium with entrapped argon||too small to measure||29|
|23.||Influx of juvenile water to oceans||340,000,000 years||30|
|24.||Influx of magma from mantle to form crust||500,000,000 years||30|
|25.||Growth of active coral reefs||10,000 years||30|
|26.||Growth of oldest living part of biosphere||5,000 years||30|
|27.||Origin of human civilizations||5,000 years||30|
|28.||Formation of river deltas||5,000 years||31|
|29.||Submarine oil seepage into oceans||50,000,000 years||32|
|30.||Decay of natural plutonium||80,000,000 years||33|
|31.||Decay of lines of galaxies||10,000,000 years||34|
|32.||Expanding interstellar gas||60,000,000 years||35|
|33.||Formation of Carbon-14 on meteorites||100,000 years||36|
|34.||Decay of short-period comets||10,000 years||37|
|35.||Decay of long-period comets||1,000,000 years||38|
|36.||Influx of small particles to the sun||83,000 years||38|
|37.||Maximum life of meteor showers||5,000,000 years||38|
|38.||Accumulation of dust on the moon||200,000 years||38|
|39.||Instability of rings of Saturn||1,000,000 years||38|
|40.||Escape of methane from Titan||20,000,000 years||38|
|41.||Deceleration of earth by tidal friction||500,000,000 years||39|
|42.||Cooling of earth by heat efflux||24,000,000 years||39|
|43.||Accumulation of calcareous ooze on sea floor||5,000,000 years||40|
|44.||Influx of sodium to the ocean via rivers||260,000,000 years||41|
|45.||Influx of nickel to the ocean via rivers||9,000 years||41|
|46.||Influx of magnesium to the ocean via rivers||45,000,000 years||41|
|47.||Influx of silicon to the ocean via rivers||8,000 years||41|
|48.||Influx of potassium to the ocean via rivers||11,000,000 years||41|
|49.||Influx of copper to the ocean via rivers||50,000 years||41|
|50.||Influx of gold to the ocean via rivers||560,000 years||41|
|51.||Influx of silver to the ocean via rivers||2,100,000 years||41|
|52.||Influx of mercury to the ocean via rivers||42,000 years||41|
|53.||Influx of lead to the ocean via rivers||2,000 years||41|
|54.||Influx of tin to the ocean via rivers||100,000 years||41|
|55.||Influx of aluminum to the ocean via rivers||100 years||41|
|56.||Influx of lithium into ocean via rivers||20,000,000 years||41|
|57.||Influx of titanium into ocean via rivers||160 years||41|
|58.||Influx of chromium into ocean via rivers||350 years||41|
|59.||Influx of manganese into ocean via rivers||1,400 years||41|
|60.||Influx of iron into ocean via rivers||140 years||41|
|61.||Influx of cobalt into ocean via rivers||18,000 years||41|
|62.||Influx of zinc into ocean via rivers||180,000 years||41|
|63.||Influx of rubidium into ocean via rivers||270,000 years||41|
|64.||Influx of strontium into ocean via rivers||19,000,000 years||41|
|65.||Influx of bismuth into ocean via rivers||45,000 years||41|
|66.||Influx of thorium into ocean via rivers||350 years||41|
|67.||Influx of antimony into ocean via rivers||350,000 years||41|
|68.||Influx of tungsten into ocean via rivers||1,000 years||41|
|69.||Influx of barium into ocean via rivers||84,000 years||41|
|70.||Influx of molybdenum into ocean via rivers||500,000 years||41|
21. Thomas G. Barnes, Origin and Destiny of the Earth's Magnetic Field (San Diego, Institute for Creation
Research, 1973), p.25.
22. Melvin A. Cook, "Do Radiological Clocks Need Repair?", Creation Research Society Quarterly,,Vol. 5,
October 1968, p.70.
23. Henry M. Morris (Ed.), Scientific Creationism for Public Schools (San Diego, Institute for Creation
Research, 1974), pp.151-153.
24. Melvin A. Cook, "Where is the Earth's Radiogenic Helium?", Nature, Vol. 179, January 26,1957, p.213.
25. Henry M. Morris, The Troubled Waters of Evolution (San Diego, Creation Life Publishers, 1974), pp. 145154.
26. Stuart E. Nevins, "Evolution: The Ocean Says No." Impact Series, ICR Acts and Facts, Vol.2, No.8, October
27. Dudley J. Whitney, The Face of the Deep (New York, Vantage Press, 1955).
28. Melvin A. Cook, Prehistory and Earth Models (London, Max Parrish, 1966).
29. Harold S. Slusher, Critique of Radiometric Dating (San Diego, Institute for Creation Research, 1973).
30. John C. Whitcomb, Jr., and Henry M. Morris, The Genesis Flood Philadelphia Presbyterian and
Reformed Publishing Company, 1961).
31. Benjamin F. Allen, "The Geologic Age of the Mississippi River," Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol.9
(September 1972), pp.96-114.
32. R. D. Wilson et al., "Natural Marine Oil Seepage," Science (Vol.184), May 24,1974, pp.857-865.
33. "Natural Plutonium," Chemical and Engineering News, September 20, 1971.
34. Halton Arp. "Observational Paradoxes in Extragalactic Astronomy," Science, Vol. 174 (December 17,
35. V. A. Hughes and D. Routledge, "An Expanding Ring of Interstellar Gas with Center Close to the Sun,"
Astronomical Journal, Vol.77, No.3 (1972), pp. 21O~214.
36. R. S. Boekl, "Search for Carbon 14 in Tektites," Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol.77, No.2 (1972), pp.
37. Harold S. Slusher, "Some Astronomical Evidences for a Youthful Solar System," Creation Research
Society Quarterly, Vol. 8 (June 1971), pp.55-57.
38. Harold S. Slusher, Age of the Earth from Some Astronomical Indicators, Unpublished manuscript.
39. Thomas G. Barnes, "Physics, A Challenge to Geologic Time," Impact Series 16, ICR Acts and Facts,
Institute for Creation Research, July 1974.
40. Maurice Ewing, J. I. Ewing and M. Talwan, "Sediment Distribution in the Oceans - Mid-Atlantic Ridge,"
Bulletin of the Geophysical Society of America, Vol. 75 (January 1964), pp.17-36.
41. Chemical Oceanography, Ed. by J. P. Riley and G. Skirrow (New York, Academic Press, Vol.1, 1965), p. 1&4.
See also Harold Camping, "Let the Oceans Speak," Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 11, (June
1974), pp. 39A5.